An Explanation of the Flow of Economic Data From the Federal Reserve
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The benchmark interest rate that the United States Federal Reserve uses is expected to be lowered this year, according to statements made by officials from the Federal Reserve as stated by the Federal Reserve.

On the other hand, information regarding inflation and employment will play a significant role in determining the precise timing and rate of reductions in the costs of borrowing money.

The Federal Reserve will hold its next policy meeting on January 30- 31. It is widely anticipated that the Federal Reserve will maintain its target interest rate within the range of 5.25% to 5.50% that it currently operates within.

The most recent data on inflation, employment, and consumer spending, on the other hand, are providing additional insight into the possibility of interest rate reductions.

Presented below is a comprehensive overview of the figures that are influencing the ongoing discussions on policy:

Inflation (The PCE Was Released on January 26; The Next Release of the CPI Is Scheduled for February 13)

The PCE price index, used by the Fed to gauge inflation, increased by 0.2% in December compared to the previous month. This aligns with economists’ predictions and corresponds to an annualized rate that meets the Fed’s 2% goal.

According to the data, the underlying core PCE inflation, which does not include the prices of energy and food, is currently below the target on both a three-month and a six-month average basis. Compared to the previous year, there has been a 2.9% increase, which is the lowest rise since March 2021.

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Based on the data, the underlying core PCE inflation, which does not include the prices of energy and food, is currently below the target on both a three-month and a six-month average basis.

At the same time, the core rate slightly decreased to 3.9% from 4.0%. These readings, which were more robust than anticipated, highlight the challenging journey toward the Federal Reserve’s target.

Federal officials will closely examine the upcoming annual revisions to the CPI, which will be released on February 11. These revisions will provide valuable insights into the trajectory of inflation. It is worth noting that the modifications made last year reversed the progress that had been observed until that point. 

Retail Sales (Released on January 17; To Be Rereleased on February 15)

In December, retail sales experienced a 0.6% increase, adding to the series of unexpected positive outcomes that the economy has consistently provided throughout 2023. The rise in expenditure hinted at the significantly higher-than-anticipated 3.3% projection for the annualized growth of the fourth-quarter GDP, which was announced on January 25.

The officials of the Federal Reserve have been eagerly awaiting indications that the significant increases in interest rates that were implemented between March 2022 and July 2023 are effectively reducing the general demand for products and services. It has been difficult to observe any discernible progress in this regard, which has been a challenge. 

Employment (Released on January 5; The Next Release Is Scheduled for February 2)

In December, the economy surpassed economists’ predictions by generating 216,000 jobs, which is an increase from the previous month’s 173,000. However, there were indications of a gradual slowdown.

The rate of joblessness remained unchanged at 3.7%; however, this was due to the fact that 676,000 people left the labor force, which nearly nullified the progress that had been made in participation since February. There was a significant decline in household employment, and the average workweek was slightly shorter compared to November.

The employment report also provided the number of job increases in the previous year. In 2023, the economy saw an increase of 2.7 million jobs, which marked a significant decrease compared to the 4.8 million positions generated in the previous year.

In general, the most recent report aligns with the Federal Reserve’s perspective of an economy that has the potential to sustain growth while simultaneously decreasing inflation.

The yearly wage increase rate, on the other hand, increased to 4.1% from 4.0%, surpassing the level that many Federal Reserve officials consider consistent with price stability.

Salary expansion remains significantly higher than the average before the pandemic and falls within the 3.0%-3.5% range that most legislators consider in line with the Federal Reserve’s 2% inflation objective.

Job Openings (Published on January 3, Next Update on January 30)

Fed Chair Jerome Powell closely monitors the U.S. Labor Department’s Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) to gather insights into the disparity between labor supply and demand.

Of particular interest is the ratio of job openings to unemployed individuals actively seeking employment. The ratio has been steadily declining towards the level it was before the pandemic, but in November, it stayed near 1.4-to-1, which is still higher than the 1.2-to-1 level observed prior to the health crisis.

Additional elements of the survey, such as the rate of voluntary separations, have returned to levels seen before the pandemic. 

Peter Bergman (

By Peter Bergman (

Peter Bergman is an experienced financial writer with a passion for helping people achieve financial freedom. With over a decade of experience, he has written extensively on topics ranging from personal finance to investment strategies, and his work has been featured on and other leading financial websites.

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